In 2000, the 22-person Hydra ship was demonstrated, and in 2003 the Duffy-Herreshoff watertaxi went into service. 2003 saw the debut of Yacht No. 1, as well Hydroxy3000. The AUVDeepC and Yacht XV 1 were shown in 2004. In 2005 the first example of the Type 212 submarine, which is powered underwater by fuel cells, went into service with the German navy. In 2006 the 12-person Xperiance was debuted, as well as the Zebotec. In 2007 both the 8-person Tuckerboot and the Canal boatRoss Barlow debuted, and in 2008 the 100-passenger Zemships project Alsterwasser went into service in Hamburg. Also, in 2009 the Nemo H2 and the Frauscher 600 Riviera HP went into service. In 2013 the Hydrogenesis Passenger Ferry project went into service.
Hjalti Pall Ingolfsson from Icelandic New Energy has commented that ships are fast becoming the biggest source of air pollution in the European Union. It is estimated that by 2020 emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from ships will exceed land-based emissions in Europe. A big issue to be dealt with would be the storage of hydrogen on ships, given that there would be no opportunity to refill them when out at sea, although one can use wind power and solar panels to generate electricity from the ocean while they are far from the shores and produce onboard hydrogen.